Meet the Researchers at the PAA Poster Session
Wednesday, January 5
4:00 pm – 5:00 pm
ACC North, 100 Level, Aisle 400
USAID The Feed the Future Global Biotech Potato Partnership
Dave Douches, Ph.D., Professor, Michigan State University
The Feed the Future Global Biotech Potato Partnership (GBPP) is a five-year $20 million multi-institution cooperative agreement between USAID, MSU and the International Potato Center (CIP) in partnership with leading international organizations, universities, and national research institutions. The award commits $13M in funding to execute program and $7M in potential additional support. Utilizing cutting-edge research to promote a robust potato value chain through the commercialization of the 3 R-gene Late Blight Resistant (LBR) potato, the goal is to sustainably reduce global poverty, hunger, and malnutrition. Ultimately, helping emerging economies in SE Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) accelerate progress towards self-reliance.
Age-related resistance: a potential new tool to combat in-season spread of potato virus Y in seed potato
Alexander Karasev, Ph.D., Professor, University of Idaho
Age-related resistance (ARR) was found to block systemic movement and translocation of PVYNTN into tubers of a potato cultivar Yukon Gold. The yield and quality of tubers from PVY-infected plants with the established ARR were not significantly different from healthy plants. Plants inoculated early, prior to the establishment of the ARR, exhibited a 100% primary systemic infection with PVYNTN, which resulted in 70% yield reduction compared to plants inoculated later in the season. This study suggests that PVYNTN management programs in seed potato should focus more on the early stages of the potato development, preceding the onset of the ARR.
Use of turkey manure as a nitrogen source
Andy Robinson, Ph.D., Associate Professor, North Dakota State University/University of Minnesota
Turkey manure compost is commonly used in potato production in Minnesota. The aim of this study was to compare traditional nitrogen sources and applications (urea broadcast, ESN broadcast, and ESN banded at hilling) to turkey manure compost broadcast prior to planting on yield and quality of Russet Burbank. Turkey manure compost treatment resulted in a similar marketable yield compared to the urea and ESN treatments. French fry color quality was not affected by N treatment in either year. The turkey manure compost was a good nitrogen source that is readily available and provides a good sustainable option for potato production.
Relationships Between Potato Yield and Soil Health Indicators in Commercial Potato Fields
Touqeer Abbas, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Research Associate, University of Minnesota
Sustainable potato production with improvement in soil health requires an understanding of how soil health indicators vary spatially within a field. Once spatial variability is characterized, appropriate management practices can be implemented. In this National SCRI Project, commercial potato fields from seven states and varying in soil-borne disease pressure were sampled at planting and 60 days after planting at 20 distinct sampling locations arranged in a grid within each field. Soil health indicators including physical, chemical, and biological properties as well as verticillium and nematodes were determined, as was yield. Relationships between soil health indicators and yield will be presented.
Systems Approach to Controlling Nematodes in U.S. Potato Production
Louise-Marie Dandurand, Ph.D., Associate Professor, University of Idaho
Nematode management is difficult in a world where nematicides are being banned, phased out, or heavily restricted, and the loss of frontline nematicides limits productivity in many high-value crop production systems such as potato. The potato cyst nematodes (PCN) Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis, and the root knot nematodes (RKN) Meloidogyne chitwoodi and Meloidogyne hapla, are some of the most limiting species in potato production due to yield loss, economic damage, and consequent regulatory actions. For potato to reach its complete potential as a nutritious, and sustainable crop, robust strategies for controlling nematodes need to be developed and implemented.
Biological conversion of cull potatoes using black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens
Andrei Alyokhin, Ph.D., Professor, University of Maine
Disposal of cull potatoes often presents a challenge to potato growers. Biological conversion of organic wastes into harvestable biomass using larvae of black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens, is a powerful emerging technology in waste management. Larvae are then processed on an industrial scale into an ingredient in formulated animal feeds. We conducted a series of experiments testing the suitability of cull tubers for larval growth and development. With only minimum processing, these tubers were a highly suitable substrate for growing larvae. This technology may be successfully employed when other ways to utilize unmarketable tubers are not available or practical for potato farmers.
SCRI Project: Tools for Genomics-Assisted Breeding in Polyploids
Jeffrey Endelman, PhD., Associate Professor, University of Wisconsin-Madison
In 2020, the potato community collaborated with breeders of other specialty crops and computational scientists to win a $4.3 million award from the USDA Specialty Crop Research Initiative titled “Tools for Genomics-Assisted Breeding in Polyploids.” The project is funding the development of new software to leverage genomics for gene discovery and the prediction of complex traits in potato and other polyploid crops. Six state potato breeding programs are funded to implement genomic selection through the project, and several others are participating as collaborators. The practical impact of these activities will be more rapid progress toward the release of improved varieties.
Susceptibility of potato cultivars to blackspot and shatter bruise at three impact heights
Rabecka Hendricks, Research Associate, University of Idaho
A study was conducted over two years to examine how bruise susceptibility in russet cultivars are affected by impact height. Tubers were impacted with a 3.5 oz steel weight from 3-, 7-, or 12-inch height, to deliver a uniform impact on both the bud and stem end of a stationary tuber. This study concluded an effective way to reduce bruise incidence for Russet Burbank, Ranger Russet, Teton Russet, and Umatilla Russet would be to lower the impact force during handling operations. Clearwater Russet and Dakota Russet were more sensitive to blackspot bruise, so additional management practices such as monitoring for appropriate pulp temperatures during handling may be more critical to integrate into a cultivar specific bruise management program.
Ry genes: PVY resistant varieties waiting for industry adoption
Gregory Elison, Ph.D., Research Geneticist, USDA ARS Aberdeen, ID
Potato virus Y (PVY) is best controlled by the development of varieties containing Ry genes which provide extreme resistance to all PVY strains. While these genes have been used in breeding programs for decades, nearly all widely grown varieties in North America remain susceptible to PVY. Ongoing efforts to develop competitive varieties containing PVY resistance genes and tools to aid in that development are focused on the russet market class in the northwestern United States. These include Ry marker discovery and development and PVY demonstration plots which are scheduled for grower field days across the US in 2022.
Localizing chromosome regions associated with tuber shape and specific gravity (dry matter) to facilitate breeding efforts in the russet market class
Jaebum Park, Ph., Research Scientist, USDA-ARS-ORISE Program
Tuber shape and specific gravity (dry matter) are important agronomic traits in potato processing and impact production costs, quality, and consistency of the final processed food products such as French fries. In this study, Rio Grande Russet, Premier Russet, and their 205 F1 progenies were evaluated in Idaho, North Carolina, and Minnesota for two years. The field and molecular marker data were then used in software analyses to identify chromosome regions associated with the traits. Chromosome regions associated with the two traits were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 7, and 10. This information will be useful in developing diagnostic molecular markers that can facilitate breeding in the russet market class, thereby expediting the development of new varieties for the U.S. potato industry.
Effect of seed treatments on fludioxonil-sensitive and -resistant isolates of Fusarium sambucinum on Clearwater Russet.
Jeff Miller, Ph.D., Research Scientist, Miller Research LLC
Clearwater Russet is highly susceptible to Fusarium dry rot. The advent of Fusarium sambucinum isolates resistant to fludioxonil, a common active ingredient in seed treatments, may increase the difficulty in managing dry rot with seed treatments. A total of 11 seed treatments were tested against a fludioxonil-resistant (FR) and fludioxonil-sensitive (FS) isolate of F. sambucinum. The FS isolate was more aggressive than the FR isolate. Maxim alone was not effective against the FR isolate. All other seed treatments were effective in reducing dry rot. Combining MZ dust with liquid seed treatments did not increase dry rot control.